A pandemic is defined as an epidemic, greatly increasing morbidity and mortality, occurring over a broad geographic area, crossing international borders, and usually affecting a large number of people. Pandemics usually cause significant economic, social, and political disruption. According to the NCBI, pandemic risk is driven by the combined effects of spark risk (where a pandemic is likely to arise) and spread risk (how likely it is to diffuse broadly through human populations). In non-financial risk management (NFRM), organizations assess the impact of a pandemic by examining both frequency of outbreaks and their severity.

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